Written by: Shiny Agrawal || Graphics by: Ritu || SEO by: Darshan
MEN OF QUALITY RESPECT WOMEN’S EQUALITY
Women worldwide face fewer economic opportunities than men, have less access to basic and higher education, face greater health and safety risks, and have less political representation.
Women’s rights and opportunities to fulfill their potential are critical not only for achieving gender equality, but also for achieving a broad range of international development goals. Women and girls who are empowered contribute to the health and productivity of their families, communities, and countries, creating a beneficial ripple effect. In this article we shall discuss about women empowerment.
CONCEPT OF EMPOWERMENT:
Empowerment is a multi-dimensional and dynamic process that helps people gain control over their own lives. Empowering girls and women is the key to economic growth ,economic stability, and social transformation.
WHAT EXACTLY IS WOMEN EMPOWERMENT:
“Women’s empowerment is used persuasively which includes economic participation and opportunities, educational attainment through improved literacy rate and enrollment ratio, political participation ,health and survival, measured with life expectancy and sex ratio.
“Women’s empowerment “, is often fusing with “gender equality” and gender equity” which are separate but intimately correlated concepts.
=>Gender equality entails “equivalence in life outcomes for women and men, recognizing their different needs and interests, and requiring a redistribution of power and resources.
=> Gender equity distinguishes that women and men have different needs, preferences and interests and that equality of of outcomes may require different treatment of men and women.
NEED OF WOMEN EMPOWERMENT. (Main points about women empowerment)
- Female infanticide and selective abortion:
It has been the most prevalent practise in India for years, in which a female foetus is aborted in the mother’s womb following foetal sex determination and sex selective abortion.
It is a form of sexual exploitation of a female child that occurs at home, on the streets, in public places, on public transportation, or in the workplace by family members, neighbours, friends, or relatives.
- Dowry and Bride incinerators:
It is another issue that is frequently encountered by women from lower or middle-class families during or after marriage.According to reports from the Indian National Crime Bureau, approximately 6787 dowry death cases were registered in India in 2005.
- Educational disparities:
Women continue to have a lower level of education than men in the modern era. Female illiteracy is more prevalent in rural areas. Where at least 63 percent of women are illiterate.
- Domestic abuse:
According to the women and child development official, it is as if an endemic and widespread disease affects nearly 70% of Indian women. It is carried out by the husband, a relative, or another member of the family.
- Adolescence marriage:
Girls are married off early by their parents in order to avoid dowry. It is widely used in rural India.
- Nutritional deficiency:
Inadequate nutrition during childhood has a negative effect on women in later life, particularly those from lower middle class and poor families.
- Low social standing within the family:
It is abuse or violence directed at women.
- Women are viewed as less intelligent than men:
As a result, they are not eligible to join the military.
- Widows’ status :
In Indian society, widows are regarded as worthless. They are mistreated and compelled to wear white clothing.
EFFORTS MADE FOR WOMEN BEFORE INDEPENDENCE:
- Raja Ram Mohan Roy, the founder of the “Brahma Samaj,” was successful in 1829 in enacting the Prevention of Sati Act and speaking out against “child marriage” and the “purdah” system.
- Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar fought for widows’ remarriage and women’s education and was successful.In 1856, Congress passed the Widow Remarriage Act.
- 1916, Maharshi Karve founded Smt. Nandubai Damodar Thackersy In University for Women (S.N.D.T.U.W.) in Poona
EFFORTS MADE AFTER INDEPENDENCE
Women’s status has changed significantly since independence. Political and cultural changes, as well as the country’s independence, provided equal opportunities for women in education, employment, and political participation, thereby reducing women’s exploitation. 1975 was designated as the year International Women’s Year and UNESCO also raised awareness about women’s issues. India’s government has taken numerous steps to ensure women’s equality with men. In recognition of this, the government designated 2001 as the “Year of Women’s Empowerment.” The government is attempting to strengthen women in a variety of ways. In 2001, the National Policy for Women’s Empowerment and an accompanying action plan were also adopted. Women empowerment strategies include social empowerment, economic empowerment, and gender equality.
LEGISLATIVE MEASURES FOR SAFEGUARDING WOMEN’S INTEREST:
- The Special Marriage Act, 1954–this Act established a marriage age of 21 for males and 18 for females and guaranteed women the right to inter-caste marriage, love marriage, and registered marriage.
- The 1955 Hindu Marriage Act prohibits child marriage, polygamy, and polyandry and guarantees equal rights to all Hindus.
- The Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act, 1956 – this Act allows a childless woman to adopt a child and sue her husband for maintenance if he divorces her.
- The Dowry Prohibition Act of 1961 prohibits the giving and taking of dowries and the exploitation of women.
- 1956 Act Suppressing Immoral Traffic in Women and Girls.
- In 1971, the Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act was enacted.
- The 1983 Criminal Law Amendment Act.
- The 1986 Act Prohibiting Indecent Representation of Women
Things To Consider:
One of the most critical aspects of women empowerment in India is changing society’s attitude toward women. The issue in India is that the society has never operated under the premise of gender equality for an extended period of time. In Indian society, atrocities and discrimination against women are a way of life.
In India, there is still an attitude that women are only useful for household tasks and child rearing. The veil, child marriage, and dowry are all manifestations of this truth. Women have never been considered a part of mainstream society in India, and they continue to be viewed as a significant liability. Educational attainment and economic participation are critical components of women’s empowerment. Education is critical for women’s empowerment in all spheres of society, because without education of comparable quality and content to that provided to boys and men, that is updated with current knowledge and relevant to current needs, women will be unable to access well-paid formal sector jobs and advance at the same rate as men. Economic empowerment of women is a critical component of any country’s economic growth. Empowering women increases their ability to influence change and contribute to the development of a better society.